Gorgi Kosev

code, music, math

Gorgi Kosev

code, music, math


ES7 async functions - a step in the wrong direction

Sun Aug 23 2015

Async functions are a new feature scheduled to become a part of ES7. They build on top of previous capabilities made available by ES6 (promises), letting you write async code as though it were synchronous. At the moment, they're a stage 1 proposal for ES7 and supported by babel / regenerator.

When generator functions were first made available in node, I was very excited. Finally, a way to write asynchronous JavaScript that doesn't descend into callback hell! At the time, I was unfamiliar with promises and the language power you get back by simply having async computations be first class values, so it seemed to me that generators are the best solution available.

Turns out, they aren't. And the same limitations apply for async functions.

Predicates in catch statements

With generators, thrown errors bubble up the function chain until a catch statement is encountered, much like in other languages that support exceptions. On one hand, this is convenient, but on the other, you never know what you're catching once you write a catch statement.

JavaScript catch doesn't support any mechanism to filter errors. This limitation isn't too hard to get around: we can write a function guard

function guard(e, predicate) {
  if (!predicate(e)) throw e;

and then use it to e.g. only filter "not found" errors when downloading an image

try {
    await downloadImage(url);
} catch (e) { guard(e, e => e.code == 404);

But that only gets us so far. What if we want to have a second error handler? We must resort to using if-then-else, making sure that we don't forget to rethrow the error at the end

try {
    await downloadImage(url);
} catch (e) {
    if (e.code == 404)  {
    } else if (e.code == 401) {
    } else {
        throw e;

Since promises are a userland library, restrictions like the above do not apply. We can write our own promise implementation that demands the use of a predicate filter:

.catch(e => e.code == 404, e => {
.catch(e => e.code == 401, e => {

Now if we want all errors to be caught, we have to say it explicitly:

.catch(e => true, e => {

Since these constructs are not built-in language features but a DSL built on top of higher order functions, we can impose any restrictions we like instead of waiting on TC39 to fix the language.

Cannot use higher order functions

Because generators and async-await are shallow, you cannot use yield or await within lambdas passed to higher order functions.

This is better explained here - The example given there is

async function renderChapters(urls) {
  urls.map(getJSON).forEach(j => addToPage((await j).html));

and will not work, because you're not allowed to use await from within a nested function. The following will work, but will execute in parallel:

async function renderChapters(urls) {
  urls.map(getJSON).forEach(async j => addToPage((await j).html));

To understand why, you need to read this article. In short: its much harder to implement deep coroutines so browser vendors probably wont do it.

Besides being very unintuitive, this is also limiting. Higher order functions are succint and powerful, yet we cannot really use them inside async functions. To get sequential execution we have to resort to the clumsy built in for loops which often force us into writing ceremonial, stateful code.

Arrow functions give us more power than ever before

Functional DSLs were very powerful even before JS had short lambda syntax. But with arrow functions, things get even cleaner. The amount of code one needs to write can be reduced greatly thanks to short lambda syntax and higher order functions. Lets take the motivating example from the async-await proposal

function chainAnimationsPromise(elem, animations) {
    var ret = null;
    var p = currentPromise;
    for(var anim of animations) {
        p = p.then(function(val) {
            ret = val;
            return anim(elem);
    return p.catch(function(e) {
        /* ignore and keep going */
    }).then(function() {
        return ret;

With bluebird's Promise.reduce, this becomes

function chainAnimationsPromise(elem, animations) {
  return Promise.reduce(animations,
      (lastVal, anim) => anim(elem).catch(_ => Promise.reject(lastVal)),
  .catch(lastVal => lastVal);

In short: functional DSLs are now more powerful than built in constructs, even though (admittedly) they may take some getting used to.

But this is not why async functions are a step in the wrong direction. The problems above are not unique to async functions. The same problems apply to generators: async functions merely inherit them as they're very similar.

Async functions also go another step backwards.

Loss of generality and power

Despite their shortcomings, generator based coroutines have one redeeming quality: they allow you to redefine the coroutine execution engine. This is extremely powerful, and I will demonstrate by giving the following example:

Lets say we were given the task to write the save function for an issue tracker. The issue author can specify the issue's title and text, as well as any other issues that are blocking the solution of the newly entered issue.

Our initial implementation is simple:

async function saveIssue(data, blockers) {
    let issue = await Issues.insert(data);
    for (let blockerId of blockers) {
      await BlockerIssues.insert({blocker: blockerId, blocks: issue.id});

Issues.insert = async function(data) {
    return db.query("INSERT ... VALUES", data).execWithin(db.pool);

BlockerIssue.insert = async function(data) {
    return db.query("INSERT .... VALUES", data).execWithin(db.pool);

Issue and BlockerIssues are references to the corresponding tables in an SQL database. Their insert methods return a promise that indicate whether the query has been completed. The query is executed by a connection pool.

But then, we run into a problem. We don't want to partially save the issue if some of the data was not inserted successfuly. We want the entire save operation to be atomic. Fortunately, SQL databases support this via transactions, and our database library has a transaction abstraction. So we change our code:

async function saveIssue(data, blockers) {
    let tx = db.beginTransaction();
    let issue = await Issue.insert(tx, data);
    for (let blockerId of blockers) {
      await BlockerIssues.insert(tx, {blocker: blockerId, blocks: issue.id});

Issues.insert = async function(tx, data) {
    return db.query("INSERT ... VALUES", data).execWithin(tx);

BlockerIssue.insert = async function(tx, data) {
    return db.query("INSERT .... VALUES", data).execWithin(tx);

Here, we changed the code in two ways. Firstly, we created a transaction within the saveIssue function. Secondly, we changed both insert methods to take this transaction as an argument.

Immediately we can see that this solution doesn't scale very well. What if we need to use saveIssue as a part of a larger transaction? Then it has to take a transaction as an argument. Who will create the transactions? The top level service. What if the top level service becomes a part of a larger service? Then we need to change the code again.

We can reduce the extent of this problem by writing a base class that automatically initializes a transaction if one is not passed via the constructor, and then have Issues, BlockerIssue etc inherit from this class.

class Transactionable {
    constructor(tx) {
        this.transaction = tx || db.beginTransaction();
class IssueService extends Transactionable {
    async saveIssue(data, blockers) {
        issues = new Issues(this.transaction);
        blockerIssues = new BlockerIssues(this.transaction);
class Issues extends Transactionable { ... }
class BlockerIssues extends Transactionable { ... }
// etc

Like many OO solutions, this only spreads the problem across the plate to make it look smaller but doesn't solve it.

Generators are better

Generators let us define the execution engine. The iteration is driven by the function that consumes the generator, which decides what to do with the yielded values. What if instead of only allowing promises, our engine let us also:

  1. Specify additional options which are accessible from within
  2. Yield queries. These will be run in the transaction specified in the options above
  3. Yield other generator iterables: These will be run with the same engine and options
  4. Yield promises: These will be handled normally

Lets take the original code and simplify it:

function* saveIssue(data, blockers) {
    let issue = yield Issues.insert(data);
    for (var blockerId of blockers) {
      yield BlockerIssues.insert({blocker: blockerId, blocks: issue.id});

Issues.insert = function* (data) {
    return db.query("INSERT ... VALUES", data)

BlockerIssue.insert = function* (data) {
    return db.query("INSERT .... VALUES", data)

From our http handler, we can now write

var myengine = require('./my-engine');

app.post('/issues/save', function(req, res) {
  myengine.run(saveIssue(data, blockers), {tx: db.beginTransaction()})

Lets implement this engine:

function run(iterator, options) {
    function id(x) { return x; }
    function iterate(value) {
        var next = iterator.next(value)
        var request = next.value;
        var nextAction = next.done ? id : iterate;

        if (isIterator(request)) {
            return run(request, options).then(nextAction)
        else if (isQuery(request)) {
            return request.execWithin(options.tx).then(nextAction)
        else if (isPromise(request)) {
            return request.then(nextAction);
    return iterate()

The best part of this change is that we did not have to change the original code at all. We didn't have to add the transaction parameter to every function, to take care to properly propagate it everywhere and to properly create the transaction. All we needed to do is just change our execution engine.

And we can add much more! We can yield a request to get the current user if any, so we don't have to thread that through our code. Infact we can implement continuation local storage with only a few lines of code.

Async generators are often given as a reason why we need async functions. If yield is already being used as await, how can we get both working at the same time without adding a new keyword? Is that even possible?

Yes. Here is a simple proof-of-concept. github.com/spion/async-generators. All we needed to do is change the execution engine to support a mechanism to distinguish between awaited and yielded values.

Another example worth exploring is a query optimizer that supports aggregate execution of queries. If we replace Promise.all with our own implementaiton caled parallel, then we can add support for non-promise arguments.

Lets say we have the following code to notify owners of blocked issues in parallel when an issue is resolved:

let blocked = yield BlockerIssues.where({blocker: blockerId})
let owners  = yield engine.parallel(blocked.map(issue => issue.getOwner()))

for (let owner of owners) yield owner.notifyResolved(issue)

Instead of returning an SQL based query, we can have getOwner() return data about the query:

{table: 'users', id: issue.user_id}

and have engine optimize the execution of parallel queries, by sending a single query per table rather then per item.

if (isParallelQuery(query)) {
    var results = _(query.items).groupBy('table')
      .map((items, t) => db.query(`select * from ${t} where id in ?`,
                                  items.map(it => it.id))
        .then(results => results.sort(byOrderOf(query.items)))

And voila, we've just implemented a query optimizer. It will fetch all issue owners with a single query. If we add an SQL parser into the mix, it should be possible to rewrite real SQL queries.

We can do something similar on the client too with GraphQL queries by aggregating multiple individual queries.

And if we add support for iterators, the optimization becomes deep: we would be able to aggregate queries that are several layers within other generator functions, In the above example, getOwner() could be another generatator which produces a query for the user as a first result. Our implementation of parallel will run all those getOwner() iterators and consolidate their first queries into a single query. All this is done without those functions knowing anything about it (thus, without breaking modularity).

Async functions cant let us do any of this. All we get is a single execution engine that only knows how to await promises. To make matters worse, thanks to the unfortunately short-sighted recursive thenable assimilation design decision, we can't simply create our own thenable that will support the above extra features. If we try to do that, we will be unable to safely use it with Promises. We're stuck with what we get by default in async functions, and thats it.

Generators are JavaScript's programmable semicolons. Lets not take away that power by taking away the programmability. Lets drop async/await and write our own interpreters.